Ivory okimono of a scull (tokotsu) entwined with a serpent, Meiji period (1868 - 1912)
worn by members of the underground dokudo (later yakuza), because they believed it brought good luck to gamblers. In the Meiji period the best-known carver of this subject was Gjokuzan.
Carved ivory netsuke signed Chiyuki 之, Japan, Meiji period, turn of the 19th century
This netsuke depicts a typical stylized devil Oni
They come from the Buddhist pantheon and appear in many folk stories. In this comical stylization the umbrella is used instead of the kanabo steel club. The eyes of the devil are made of mother-of-pearl and were inserted by the technique ji ita hamekomi.